Rice cultivation

Strategic Rainfed Rice Cultivation for Mitigating GHG Emissions

Rainfed rice fields in Southeast Asian countries are characterized by low productivity. On the other hand, these fields are recognized as an important source of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG), especially methane. Therefore, from the points of view of sustainable development and environmental conservation, it is needed to develop the methods of improved land use and management of rainfed rice fields.

The research project investigates the effects of introducing upland crop rotation in the fallow period of rainfed rice on the net emissions of GHG. Parts of harvested crops or their residues are utilized for bio-energy production. The benefit of the rotation system for mitigating GHG emissions is quantitatively evaluated. The research mostly carries out in Thailand and the conclusion can be done in both countries.

• Carbon sequestration by using cultivation of energy crop during fallow period

→ maximum: 4% SOC increase by incorporation of crop residues

Targeted questions: how can we hold water reservoir? Which regions are applicable on this cultivation systems? Is the method really effective to all Thailand?

• Reduction of methane emission by management of water and soil organic material (organic manure, crop residue etc.)

→maximum: 30%

Targeted questions: how can we utilize organic materials (transportation, production of organic fertilizers,….)

• Cultivation area in Thailand  = 11 million ha
• Percentage of cultivation area of rain-fed rice paddy in Thailand :  ~80% = 8 ~ 9 million ha
• Options of fallow period land management methods in Thailand
–Fallow (default)
–Sweet Sorghum
–Sugar Cane

the concept

•75 per cent of rice cultivation area in Thailand is rain-fed rice fields with one cultivation a year. At least 8 month was left fallowed
•Strategic approach aiming at rice cultivation practices involving rotation with energy
crops for mitigating GHGs, while enhancing capacity in energy production and long term soil carbon storage.

the strategy

•NIAES (National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba)
1.On-site automated closed chamber ghg flux measurements for upland and rice paddy
2.Off-line automated gas injection system with combined gas analyzer of 3 gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) developed by NIAES.
3.FACE experimental site in Tsukubamirai City.
•Rice cultivation
–Rain-fed and irrigated
•Energy crop rotation
– Corn and sorghum
–GHG mitigation
–C budget and C storage
–Yield and benefit

Further information, please contact:

Assoc. Prof. Sirinthinthop Thoprwayon; sirin@jgsee.kmutt.ac.th

Dr.  Shigeto Sudo: ssudo@affrc.go.jp

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